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Table 6 Results of the sub-analyses for socio-demographic and offense-related variables as independent variables

From: EU DRUID project: results of a questionnaire survey amongst participants of driver rehabilitation programmes in Europe

Variables Age BAC Gender Education Recidivist
r p-value r p-value Male Female Cohen’s d p-value <A-level >A-level Cohen’s d p-value No yes Cohen’s-d p-value
Overall course evaluation r = −.169 p < .001*** r = −.032 p = .008** 1.54 ± 0.56 1.41 ± 0.53 0.22 p < .001*** 1.53 ± 0.54 1.55 ± 0.59 −0.04 p = .221 1.53 ± 0.56 1.52 ± 0.55 0.01 p = .828
Transtheoretical model—processes
 Consciousness raising r = −.145 p < .001*** r = −.059 p < .001*** 1.66 ± 0.59 1.55 ± 0.55 0.19 p < .001*** 1.63 ± 0.57 1.72 ± 0.61 −0.15 p = .176 1.66 ± 0.59 1.61 ± 0.57 0.08 p = .003**
 Dramatic relief r = −.002 p = .863 r = −.064 p < .001*** 1.90 ± 0.84 1.82 ± 0.87 0.10 p = .012* 1.86 ± 0.83 1.93 ± 0.83 −0.08 p = .666 1.90 ± 0.85 1.88 ± 0.85 0.02 p = .564
 Environmental re-evaluation r = −.160 p < .001*** r = −.069 p < .001*** 1.93 ± 0.97 1.86 ± 0.99 0.07 p = .059 1.88 ± 0.94 2.07 ± 1.00 −0.20 p < .001*** 1.94 ± 0.98 1.85 ± 0.93 0.09 p = .001**
 Self re-evaluation r = −.151 p < .001*** r = −.065 p < .001*** 1.70 ± 0.79 1.58 ± 0.78 0.15 p < .001*** 1.67 ± 0.78 1.78 ± 0.82 −0.15 p = .141 1.71 ± 0.80 1.61 ± 0.77 0.12 p < .001***
 Social liberation r = −.109 p < .001*** r = −.017 p = .158 1.43 ± 0.65 1.34 ± 0.61 0.13 p = .001** 1.39 ± 0.61 1.50 ± 0.69 −0.16 p = .002** 1.43 ± 0.65 1.41 ± 0.62 0.03 p = .323
Cognitive-affective process scales (in sum) r = −.180 p < .001*** r = −.085 p < .001*** 1.70 ± 0.49 1.60 ± 0.46 0.21 p < .001*** 1.67 ± 0.46 1.77 ± 0.52 −0.22 p = .002** 1.71 ± 0.49 1.66 ± 0.47 0.10 p < .001***
 Self-liberation r = −.153 p < .001*** r = −.052 p < .001*** 1.40 ± 0.57 1.30 ± 0.48 0.19 p < .001*** 1.38 ± 0.54 1.43 ± 0.59 −0.09 p = .578 1.40 ± 0.57 1.37 ± 0.54 0.06 p = .031*
 Stimulus control r = −.154 p < .001*** r = −.038 p = .002** 1.53 ± 0.76 1.46 ± 0.74 0.09 p = .018* 1.49 ± 0.72 1.64 ± 0.82 −0.20 p = .001** 1.54 ± 0.76 1.50 ± 0.75 0.05 p = .068
 Counter conditioning r = −.129 p < .001*** r = −.044 p < .001*** 1.49 ± 0.65 1.41 ± 0.63 0.13 p = .001** 1.46 ± 0.62 1.56 ± 0.71 −0.15 p = .004** 1.50 ± 0.66 1.44 ± 0.62 0.09 p = .001**
 Helping relations r = −.120 p < .001*** r = −.028 p = .022* 1.51 ± 0.68 1.47 ± 0.69 0.07 p = .075 1.49 ± 0.65 1.58 ± 0.74 −0.13 p = .056 1.52 ± 0.69 1.48 ± 0.64 0.06 p = .050
 Reinforcement management r = −.130 p < .001*** r = −.060 p < .001*** 1.69 ± 0.87 1.61 ± 0.89 0.09 p = .014* 1.64 ± 0.84 1.84 ± 0.93 −0.23 p < .001*** 1.71 ± 0.88 1.64 ± 0.85 0.08 p = .005**
Behavioural process scales (in sum) r = −.190 p < .001*** r = −.060 p < .001*** 1.51 ± 0.50 1.42 ± 0.48 0.17 p < .001*** 1.47 ± 0.47 1.58 ± 0.55 −0.21 p = .001** 1.51 ± 0.51 1.46 ± 0.49 0.09 p = .001**
Diamond of change—contributing factors
 Individual r = −.206 p < .001*** r = −.084 p < .001*** 1.64 ± 0.52 1.54 ± 0.48 0.19 p < .001*** 1.60 ± 0.49 1.73 ± 0.56 −0.24 p < .001*** 1.65 ± 0.52 1.59 ± 0.50 0.12 p < .001***
 Methods r = −.173 p < .001*** r = −.024 p = .050 1.68 ± 0.77 1.58 ± 0.74 0.14 p < .001*** 1.65 ± 0.73 1.78 ± 0.82 −0.17 p < .001*** 1.69 ± 0.77 1.62 ± 0.75 0.10 p < .001***
 Contents r = −.064 p < .001*** r = −.062 p < .001*** 1.58 ± 0.59 1.49 ± 0.58 0.16 p < .001*** 1.55 ± 0.57 1.60 ± 0.60 −0.09 p = .002** 1.58 ± 0.59 1.55 ± 0.57 0.05 p = .054
 Participant–participant relations r = −.087 p < .001*** r = −.030 p = .014* 1.68 ± 0.69 1.61 ± 0.72 0.10 p = .012* 1.65 ± 0.68 1.73 ± 0.72 −0.11 p < .001*** 1.67 ± 0.70 1.67 ± 0.68 0.01 p = .707
 Participant–trainer relations r = −.143 p < .001*** r = −.036 p = .003 1.34 ± 0.53 1.24 ± 0.46 0.19 p < .001*** 1.32 ± 0.50 1.37 ± 0.55 −0.11 p < .001*** 1.34 ± 0.53 1.31 ± 0.49 0.06 p = .025*
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001; Effect sizes: r < .20…small effect, .20–.40 medium effect, > .40 large effect; Cohen’s-d: < .30…small effect .30–.60…medium effect, > .60….large effect