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Table 2 Model estimation results

From: Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

Variables Characteristics Threshold between:
0 and 1 1 and 2 2 and 3
Bus driver’s age 24 years old or less 0.318** 0.393** 1.066**
25 years old or morea
Bus driver’s maneuver Going straighta
Turning rightb 0.557*** 0.557*** 0.557***
Turning leftb 0.200* 0.200* 0.200*
Standingb 0.625*** 0.625*** 0.625
Bus driver’s maneuver at intersections Red or yellow light crossedb 0.190** 0.190** 0.190**
Right of wayb 0.320** 0.320** 0.320**
No traffic controla
Third party involved Pedestrian 2.410*** 2.066*** 1.793***
Cyclist 1.583*** 1.590*** 1.355***
Mopedb 1.600*** 1.600*** 1.600***
Motorcycleb 1.337*** 1.337*** 1.337***
Cara
Vanb 0.137* 0.137* 0.137*
Heavy vehiclesb 0.460** 0.460** 0.460**
Objectb 0.422*** 0.422*** 0.422***
Third party’s age Less than 45 years olda
45–54 years oldb 0.393*** 0.393*** 0.393***
55–64 years oldb 0.331*** 0.331*** 0.331***
65 years old or more 0.393*** 0.623*** 1.239***
Third party’s behavior Alcohol consumption 0.727*** 0.515*** 0.203
No restraint use 0.286*** 0.324*** 0.372*
Third party’s maneuver Going straighta
Turning rightb 0.637*** 0.637*** 0.637***
Turning leftb 0.216* 0.216* 0.216*
Standing and parkingb 0.442* 0.442* 0.442*
Third party’s maneuver at intersection Red or yellow light crossedb 0.441*** 0.441*** 0.441***
Right of wayb 0.249* 0.249* 0.249*
Speed limit 50 km/h or lessa
60–70 km/h 0.317** 0.169 0.659**
80 km/h or more 0.834*** 0.705*** 1.626***
Surface conditions Drya
Slippery (wet, snow, ice)b 0.162* 0.162* 0.162*
Land use Residentialb 0.173* 0.173* 0.173*
Commercialb 0.244* 0.244* 0.244*
Industrialb 0.452*** 0.452*** 0.452***
Open areasa
Time of day 06–09a
09–15b 0.249*** 0.249** 0.249**
15–18b 0.134* 0.134* 0.134*
18–06 0.168* 0.496** 0.649**
Year-specific effects 2002a
2003b 0.239 0.239 0.239
2004b 0.080 0.080 0.080
2005b 0.473*** 0.473*** 0.473***
2006b 0.140 0.140 0.140
2007b 0.148 0.148 0.148
2008b 0.372** 0.372** 0.372**
2009b 0.412** 0.412** 0.412**
2010 0.712*** 0.192 0.091
2011 0.925*** 0.491** 1.356**
Area-specific effects Copenhagena
Sealandb 0.079 0.079 0.079
North Jutlandb 0.537*** 0.537*** 0.537***
MidJutlandb 0.546*** 0.546*** 0.546***
South Jutlandb 0.004 0.004 0.004
Fynb 0.191 0.191 0.191
Constant   1.716*** 2.701*** 5.169***
Number of observations 3434
Log-likelihood at estimates 2891.62
McFadden rho-square 0.1262
  1. aBase category
  2. bTested constraint for parallel lines
  3. *Significant at the 0.10 level
  4. **Significant at the 0.05 level
  5. ***Significant at the 0.01 level