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Table 1 Identified the decision variables based on the FCO dimensions

From: Fuel consumption optimization in air transport: a review, classification, critique, simple meta-analysis, and future research implications

Identified dimension

Identified decision variables of FCO


(A) Aircraft technology & design

1)Aircraft structural weight

2)Wing reference area

3)Wing leading edge sweep

4)Wing quarter chord sweep

5)Wing aspect ratio

6)Wing mid span

7)Wing dihedral

8)Wing root thickness to chord ratio

9)Wing tip height

10)Wing span

11)Wing fuel weight

12)Wing exposed root chord

13)Wing quarter chord sweep

14)Wing average thickness to chord ratio

15)Ultimate load factor

16)Maximum design speed

17)Fuselage seat abreast

18)Fuselage cargo height

19)Maximum height of fuselage

20)Effective maximum diameter of fuselage

21)Maximum cabin width of fuselage

22)Fuselage nose length

23)Fuselage parallel length

24)fuselage tail length

25)Fuselage cabin length

26)Fuselage fineness ratio

27)Horizontal tail area

28)Horizontal tail span

29)Horizontal tail aspect ratio

30)Horizontal tail taper ratio

31)Vertical tail area

32)Vertical tail span

33)Vertical tail aspect ratio

34)Vertical tail taper ratio

35)Drag type factor

36)Critical mach number

37)Aircraft wetted area to wing reference area ratio

38)Cruise lift to drag ratio

39)Oswald efficiency factor

40)Effective wing aspect ratio

41)Takeoff thrust sea level

42)Engine bypass ratio

43)Number of engines

44)Engine dry weight

45)Operating specific fuel consumption

46)Static margin

47)Centre of gravity position of aircraft from leading edge of wing

48)Aerodynamic centre of aircraft from leading edge of wing

[1, 3, 10, 11, 13107]

(B) Aviation operations & infrastructure

49)Maximum takeoff weight

50)Stage length

51)Fuel weight

52)Reserve fuel weight


54)Cruise speed

55)Maximum number of passenger

56)Mission passenger

57)Maximum cabin altitude differential

58)Maximum payload weight

59)Mission payload weight

60)Takeoff field length

61)Maximum ceiling

62)Initial cruise altitude

63)Landing field length

64)Weather condition

65)Flight profile

66)Pilot Techniques

67)Aircraft maintenance

68)Terminal area




[1, 3, 7, 1120, 32, 33, 38, 4042, 44, 48, 53, 54, 61, 67, 69, 70, 7275, 85, 86, 94, 95, 98, 104182]

(C) Socioeconomic & policy measures

72)Aircraft scheduling

73)Fuel prices

74)Ticket prices

75)Economic incentives

76)Labour & Work Rule

77)Voluntary Measures

78)Community Awareness

79)Social and political pressure

80)R & D funding for technology

81)Government regulations

82)Charges and taxes

83)Emission trading scheme

84)Political obstacles

[2, 3, 1420, 29, 33, 41, 42, 44, 53, 54, 73, 74, 94, 113, 114, 150, 154, 158160, 172, 183224]

(D) Alternative fuels & fuel properties

85)Types of alternate fuels

86)Fuel availability

87)Energy per unit volume

88)Energy per unit mass

89)Aromatics content

90)Sulphur content


92)Boiling point

93)Flash point




97)Freezing point

98)Smoke point

[3, 11, 1318, 32, 33, 4042, 53, 54, 59, 79, 86, 94, 104, 140, 150, 194, 225282]