Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 External factors

From: Sulphur emission control areas and transport strategies -the case of Sweden and the forest industry

Factor Relevance Determinants
Price of crude oil Affects price of fuel and heavily affects cost for shipping and road transport E.g. politics, regional conflicts, economic situation
Price increased to specific fuels The price of LSFO is sensitive to supply shortages Demand and refineries’ production capacity
Currencies Cost of fuel. Forest industry profitability and ability to absorb increased transport prices. Economic situation and politics.
Supply and demand of alternative solutions (LNG, methanol, scrubbers) Availability of alternatives and associated costs. Motives, incentives, and subsidies for investments and innovation
Port infrastructure and other technology Availability of alternatives and associated costs. Motives, incentives, and subsidies for investments and innovation
Capacity of rail, road, and terminals. Opportunity for modal shift and costs of alternative modes of transport. Infrastructure investments, internalisation of external costs.