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Table 1 List and brief summaries of the Zensos, (Own translation based on [21])

From: Japan’s transport planning at national level, natural disasters, and their interplays

No Year Govt. agency Main objectives Target year Key development method / strategy
1 1962 EPA Developments balanced among regions. 1970 Decentralizing industrial locations, developing new industrial centers
2 1969 EPA Creating enriched environment 1985 Large projects such as Shinkansen and Expressways to adjust regional balance
3 1977 NLA Creating comprehensive and integrated environment for human lives “Approx. 10 years since 1977” (1987) Regional developments to realize balances among the regions and to create comprehensive and integrated living environments
4 1987 NLA Building multi-polar decentralized land “Approx. 12 years later” (around 2000) Networking within and among regions by (1) infrastructures, (2) national development for transport and communication infrastructures, and (3) providing various networking possibilities.
5 1998 NLA Basis for forming multi-axis land structure 2010–2015 (1) nature-rich living environments, (2) Urban renovation of large cities, (3) Clusters among regions, (4) Extensive internationally networked area.