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Table 4 An illustrative example of calculation of the total effect on fatalities based on percent coefficients

From: A headway to improve PTW rider safety within the EU through three types of ITS

Mechanism Effect on fatalities Effect, % Coefficient of efficiency
Mechanism 1 Decreases −10% 0.90
Mechanism 3 Increases + 0.5% 1.005
Mechanism 6 Increases + 2% 1.02
Total medium effect −8% ← (0.90*1.005*1.02 = 0.92)
Total medium effect with 80% usage −8%*80% = −6.4%
Total medium effect with 60% penetration rate −6.4%*60% = −3.8%