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Table 3 External cost impacts per retail logistics solution and category of external costs (urban context) (in €)

From: Sustainability assessment of retail logistics solutions using external costs analysis: a case-study for the city of Antwerp

   Business as-is UCC Tethering Shared bus
External costs Accidents 0.516 0.560 0.490 0.630
Air pollution 0.486 0.304 0.266 0.342
Climate change 0.030 0.032 0.028 0.036
Congestion 1.823 0.960 0.840 1.080
Infrastructure 0.516 0.448 0.392 0.504
Noise 0.865 0.911 0.797 1.025
  1. Source: own elaboration based on [20]