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Table 4 Sustainability assessment of the four urban retail logistics conceptsa

From: Sustainability assessment of retail logistics solutions using external costs analysis: a case-study for the city of Antwerp

       Business as-is UCC Tethering scenario Shared bus
Environment External costs Goals Indicator Definition Impact Units     
  Air pollution Total health/medical costs, crop losses, building damages, etc. caused by the impacts of air pollution     
 x   0.125 0.132 0.115 0.148
PM   0.023 0.025 0.022 0.028
2   0.118 0.125 0.109 0.140
Mitigate the climate change impacts Climate change All costs that refer to the impacts of the climate change and can be expressed either as damage costs or as avoidance costs 0.015 0.016 0.014 0.018
 2   0.024 0.025 0.022 0.029
Minimize noise nuisance Noise Total costs of noise nuisance (social and economic costs like any restrictions on enjoyment of desired leisure activities, discomfort or inconvenience) and health damage costs (hearing damage, cardiovascular diseases, etc). 0.865 0.911 0.797 1.025
Society    Environmental sustainability index per urban retail logistics solution 0,703 0,497 1000 0,000
Increase road safety Accidents All direct and indirect costs of an accident (material costs, medical costs, production losses, etc) 0.516 0.560 0.490 0.630
Reduce space scarcity and accessibility for road users Congestion (Additional costs in urban areas) All costs for traffic users and society (time, reliability, operation, missed economic activities) caused by high traffic densities 1.823 0.960 0.840 1.080
Ensure acceptable quality of road infrastructure Infrastructure damage Costs of repair, compensation and restoration of the damages caused by transport and logistics operations to transport infrastructure 0.516 0.448 0.392 0.504
  Increase urban livability Attractiveness of the urban environmentb Attractiveness of urban environment is defined as the perception of attractiveness of the urban context before and after the interventions in terms of visual intrusion, physical nuisance, accessibility and other dimensions that fall under the umbrella of urban livability as perceived by road users and citizens + % 0 −1 0 −1
  Ensure ample space provision for logistical operations without sacrificing the road user high quality mobility Space occupancy Space occupancy is defined as the amount of space (m2) that is assigned for logistics operations in a given area (it includes all kind of logistics activities such as consolidation, transshipment, pick-up, etc) m2 0 4000 2000 5000
    Societal sustainability index per urban retail logistics solution 0,562 0,426 0,920 0,171
Economy   Reduce profit loss Costs of Decay of goods - (urban context)c For sensitive goods like FMCG, it regards the non-out-of-pocket costs that are derived along the transport chain and are assigned by shippers. They are associated mainly with the value of transported goods 159,2 88,0 80,8 119,2
Internal costs Mitigate operational logistics costs Handling costsd Total handling costs are defined as the ones that refer to the expenses, both for personnel and equipment, that are generated from handling activities taking place at the transshipment points 64,714 87,905 94,582 114,494
    Economic sustainability index per urban retail logistics solution 0,500 0,721 0,700 0,255
Transport   Maximize transportation efficiency Line-haul distance covered The total distance of a single roundtrip that excludes the urban context transport km 42,5 43,5 37,5 45
  Distance made within urban context for last-mile deliveries The distance of a single roundtrip that includes only the transport leg carried out within urban context km 15,19 16 14 18
  Upgrade level of service Punctuality of deliveries Punctuality is defined as the percentage of delivery times that are within an acceptable time slot or time window + % 0 5 10 −5
    Transport sustainability index per urban retail logistics solution 0,456 0,456 1000 0,000
    Overall sustainability per urban retail logistics solution 55,53% 52,48% 90,50% 10,66%
  1. aData refers to delivery trips or the part of them that is carried out within an urban context unless otherwise noted
  2. bIndicator value ϵ [−2,2]
  3. cData calculate in and derived from [21]