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Table 4 Summary of the identifications in the drivers’ group

From: Delivery truck drivers’ work outside the cab: psychosocial discomforts and risks based on participatory video analyses

ID Short description of the situation where the discomforts occurred Identification contains characteristics specific to Nordic environments
1 Crowded facilities at the principal terminal creates strain and tension while performing loading tasks.  
2 Poor identification of the goods inside the terminal. The driver is forced to search the goods while performing loading.  
3 Narrow premises. Not possibilities to use tail gate loader. Risk of slipping and being hurt while ascending or descending the tailgate loader.  
4 Difficult to reach control switches while using the tailgate loader, as they are on the other side of the cargo space wall. Order of the switches may vary by manufacturer.  
5 Difficulties in securing the load. Floor hooks frozen or rusted.  
6 Difficulties in securing the load. Lack of supplies for binding the cargo.  
7 Difficulties in securing the load. Mounting hooks below the cargo space not available in all trailers.  
8 Difficult to reach. Refuelling difficult as the tank is located in a place with improper access.  
9 Uneven ground. Danger of slipping while descending the cargo space.  
10 Time pressure. Monday distributions are usually very busy.  
11 Unsafe cargo space. During windy weather, the cargo space door might suddenly blow open.  
12 Unsafe tailgate loader. Risk of hurting foot by accidentally placing it under the tailgate loader while it is being lifted.  
13 Unsafe customer premises. The cooling cabinet is shallow and it is possible to knock head. Driver has to walk by stooping back and neck.  
14 Slippery ground at customer courtyard. X
15 The driver may tumble while performing manual lift is performed incorrectly in the cargo space.  
16 Cages and the driver might fall from a high level when the driver is at the tailgate loader. Sometimes the driver has to warn other people not to come too near the truck.  
17 Unsafe public environment. Crossing a public road with the goods. X
18 Unsafe loading practices. Five boxes have been piled one on the other. Possibility of falling.  
19 Unsafe working practices. Handling a light load that is difficult in size and shape.  
20 Unsafe working practices. There is a light in the cargo space but the driver tends not to switch it on.  
21 Unsafe unloading practices at customer’s premises. Not possibilities to use the tailgate loader. There is a potential risk of being injured by falling under the load.  
22 A very narrow space inside the lift at a customer’s premises and goods must be distributed to several floors.  
23 Small space to perform unloading at a customer’s courtyard.  
24 Unsafe working methods. Very large items must be pulled one or two times in a work shift.  
25 Unsafe work environments. Working with heavy loads at the tailgate loader in wintertime. X
26 Fear that a roll container or a similar load may fall from the tailgate loader or from the cargo space when the vehicle is in a tilted position.  
27 Carrying goods on public streets at winter conditions. X
28 Unsafe and narrow customer premises. The driver must choose not to drive to the loading dock to save time if there is only one package to be delivered.  
29 Approaching a customer’s dock. Reversing alarms are unreliable. There is no clear, marked route for pedestrians. Poor visibility and parking arrangements are inadequate.  
30 Cargo space area lighting is insufficient.  
31 Loading docks are not marked with the height of the loading ramp. In some vehicles, lifting is difficult as the hand brake may affect the pressure.  
32 Loading at the principal terminal. The plots are small relative to the large amount of the goods. Scheduling routes is thus difficult.  
33 The driver is forced to seek for goods inside the terminal.  
34 The driver must find ways for handling of over-long items.  
35 Some of the items to be delivered are stored outside and must be sought.  
36 When the side of the cargo space is open at customer’s premises while unloading, there is a risk of the cargo falling. Bad lighting worsens the situation.  
37 Unsafe truck body structures. Steps are not included in all vehicle models and the driver must adapt. Foot slips easily.  
38 Gear box fixing and the door latch are weak. The driver faces a possibility for hurting himself.  
39 Problems related to connecting the trailer to the truck. Clothes get dirty and there is a possibility to hurt hands or head. The placement of plugs may vary by manufacturer.  
40 Pallet truck has not been fastened properly inside the cargo space.  
41 Placement for different accessories varies inside the cab. The driver may need to adapt to different work environments.  
42 The driver does not know how to use ICT devices used for reporting after unloading the goods at customers’ premises.  
43 The cargo is not fastened properly because of the difficult shape of the item.  
44 Difficult shaped item. Fastening the item is difficult and the driver acts unsafely.  
45 The driver is fastening the load incorrectly. Guidance to drivers insufficient.  
46 Hooks are icy and placed poorly inside the cargo space. May force to improper load fastening solutions. No assistive devices available. X
47 Moving heavy items alone is difficult and contains many risks at a customer’s premises.  
48 The driver is uncertain about the binding point inside the cargo space.  
49 Poor communication. When the driver is unloading cargo that has been fastened by someone else, he/she can’t be absolutely sure if it has been fastened safely.  
50 The driver chooses not to use the tailgate loader while ascending the cargo space.  
51 The driver is uncertain about the load securing process. 12 m-long metal pipes are difficult to fasten.  
52 Different kinds of pushcarts available, however the driver chooses not to use them for unloading purposes.  
53 Difficulties to reach while using pushcarts inside narrow cargo space.  
54 Unsafe loading dock at a customer’s premises. Possibility of falling from the tailgate loader.  
55 Installing and lifting cargo space supporters is difficult. Jammed supporters will rip out.  
56 Location of the gas tank is problematic. Difficulties when refuelling.  
57 Poor lighting at public streets and the unloading work must be performed on the street.  
58 Customer’s narrow premises force the driver to move other items out of the way before he/she can start unloading,  
59 Pulling a roll cage on a public street in slippery conditions. X
60 The driver is forced to deliver goods inside narrow premises (in this case, a small shop) among clients.