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Table 5 Indicators of performances of the HL system and its APT and HSR counterparts

From: Analysis and modelling of performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system

Performance Unit HL HSR APT
Considered distance Km 600 600 600
Operational performance
 Capacity Seats/veh 28 1000 130
Veh/h 12 12 3
Seat/h 336 12,000 390
 Technical productivitya) Seat-km/h2 409,920 4,200,000 323,710
 Quality of serviceb)
  - travel time Min 40.3 138.9 98.5
  - frequency Dep/h 12 12 3
  - interconnectivity   + ++ ++
  - reliability   +++ ++ +
Financial performance
 Costs     
  - Line infrastructure k€/year/km double track 825–2300 883.4 600
  - Access points k€/year/access point 4000
  - Vehicles k€/year/seat 29 2–4.7c) 48.8–65.4c)
€/seat-km 0.008 0.031d) 0.033–0.035d)
 Revenues/fares (€/p-km) €/p-km >  0.30 0.174 0.183
Social/Environmental performance
 Energy consumptione) kWh/p-km <  177 177 591
 GHG (CO2) emissionsf) g/p-km 0 40 120
 Noiseg)   +++ + ++
 Safetyh)   +++ +++ +++
 Land usei) ha/km (net) 0.5 3.2–3.5 15
ha/km (gross) 1.0 3.2
  1. +: low performance; ++: moderate performance; +++: high performance
  2. (a)HL: 28 seats · 10 dep/h · 1220 km/h; APT: 130 seats · 3 dep/h · 830 km/h; HSR: 1000 seats ·12 dep/h ·350 km/h [20]
  3. (b)See Table 2; As reliability is concerned, both HSR and APT can be affected by weather conditions (e.g. ice, snow), but APT seems more vulnerable than HSR
  4. (c)Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 aircraft; Siemens Velaro HS train (http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/siemens-velaro-high-speed-trains/) (Amortization period: 25 years)
  5. (d)European airlines [36]; European HSR [37] (Load factor: θ = 0,80)
  6. (e)The values for the HSR relate to the European context, and are based on a mix of the energy sources
  7. (f)Emission of CO2 by HSR could actually also drop to zero if electricity is produced the emission free. The emissions of CO2 by APT reflect those of the flight of length of 500–600 km (120 gCO2/p-km) by an Airbus A320 aircraft [38]
  8. (g)The noise exposure of an observer at 25 m distance of a passing by HS train (depends on the train’s speed) is in the range of 84–105 dBA; noise exposure by APT locally (at the airport noise measurement locations) is in the range of 46–92,5 dBA
  9. (h)The number of traffic incidents/accidents and related personal injuries and deaths is expected to be at the comparable high level [14]
  10. (i)Only the land use regarding the line infrastructure; (A different values can emerge when the suprastructure (i.e., stations, airports) is considered; Airports need much space compared to the HSR and HL stations)