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Table 4 Notation for the cost function

From: Measuring delivery route cost trade-offs between electric-assist cargo bicycles and delivery trucks in dense urban areas

L nb Distance between DC and neighborhood, mi
N Number of stops at the route
L s Distance between stops, mi
n Average number of parcels per stop
n vt Number of trucks needed to serve the route
C d Costs associated with driver, $
C v Costs associated with vehicle, $
C vu Costs of vehicle usage, $ / hour
t f Delivery fixed time (equal to 0.15 h [14] for trucks and 0.06 h for bicycles), h
t o Total route time traveled by all vehicles, h
t v Delivery variable time (equal to 0.008 h for both trucks and bicycles), h/parcel
d Total route distance, mi
v Vehicle traveling speed, mi/h
w Driver wage, $/h
n vb Number of bikes needed to serve the route
\( {\boldsymbol{n}}_{{\boldsymbol{vt}}_{\boldsymbol{cap}}} \) Number of trucks needed to serve the route with capacity restrictions
\( {\boldsymbol{n}}_{{\boldsymbol{vt}}_{\boldsymbol{T}}} \) Number of trucks needed to serve the route with driver working hours restrictions
p dim Average package dimension, ft3 (equal to 1.96 ft3)
t cap Truck capacity, ft3
t travel Route travel time, h
t deliv Route delivery time, h
t wd Driver working day time, h (equal to 10 h)
b cap EA cargo bicycle capacity, ft3
d b An average maximum distance EA cargo bike can travel, mi (equal to 18 miles)
\( {\boldsymbol{n}}_{\boldsymbol{vb}}^{\boldsymbol{cap}} \) Number of bicycles needed to serve the route with capacity restrictions
\( {\boldsymbol{n}}_{{\boldsymbol{vb}}_{\boldsymbol{T}}\kern0.5em } \) Number of bicycles needed to serve the route with driver working hours restrictions
\( {\boldsymbol{n}}_{{\boldsymbol{vb}}_{\boldsymbol{b}}\kern0.5em } \) Number of bicycles needed to serve the route with the battery restrictions