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Table 2 Selected enhanced mobility types (EMT), their mobility behavior (combination of mode use and trip purpose), predominant socio-demographic characteristics and predominant availability of mobility resources

From: Developing a user typology considering unimodal and intermodal mobility behavior: a cluster analysis approach using survey data

Mobility type Mobility behavior (resulting from cluster analyses; less than average/higher than average refers to total dataset) Predominant socio-demographic characteristics (in % of the specific mobility type) Predominant availability of mobility resources (in % of the specific mobility type)
I1U5 all-purpose car-user (n = 129; 12.5%) - high unimodal use of car for all trip purposes
- complementary use of bike
- use of intermodal combinations is low
- male (58.3%)
- main age group 36–45 (24.8%) and 46–55 (25.6%)
- many working people (74.4%)
- family households (41.4%)
- often living in a decentralized neighborhood
- car availability (85.3%) and car-sharing membership (20.2%) are high
- low share of public transport passes (19.5%)
I2U2 public transport user (n = 96; 9.2%) - high daily use of intermodal and unimodal use of public transport
- predominantly trips to work and leisure activities
- female (53.1%)
- main age group 26–35 (33.7%)
- many students and school pupils (24.0%)
- one-person households (31.3%) and couples (38.5%)
- often living in a well-connected neighborhood
- high degree of public transport passes (91.6%)
- car availability is very low (29.2%)
- car-sharing-memberships are below average (12.0%)
I3U1 intermodal car and public transport user (n = 27; 2.6%) - often combines car and public transport, especially for shopping and private errands
- unimodal car use is high as well
- female (51.9%)
- main age group 66–75 (37.0%)
- retired (70.4%)
- many couples (59.3%)
- often living in a decentralized neighborhood
- car availability is very high (92.6%)
- only few have a public transport pass (25.9%) or car-sharing membership (3.7%)
I5U3 intermodal bike and public transport user (n = 38; 3.7%) - often combines bike and public transport (well above average) or different means of public transport
- intermodal for many different trip purposes including trips to work
- also uses the bike unimodally, especially for shopping, leisure activities and private errands
- unimodal car use is below average
- male (55.3%),
- main age group 36–45 (24.3%)
- working (63.2%), mainly full-time (86.4% thereof)
- family households (34.2%)
- often living in an urban neighborhood
- public transport passes (83.8%) and car-sharing memberships (45.7%) to a high degree,
- car availability is quite low (34.2%)
I6U5 multimodal user(n = 20; 1.9%) - both intermodal and unimodal usage
- use of intermodal mode combinations (pt + pt., bike + pt., car + pt) is above average for all kind of trip purposes
- additionally, high unimodal car and bike use
- female (55.0%)
- main age group 46–55 (20.0%) and 56–65 (25.0%)
- working (60.0%)
- family households (40.0%)
- often living in a decentralized neighborhood
- availability of car (55.0%) and public transport passes (61.1%) is equal on an average level
- very few have a car-sharing membership (5.3%)