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Table 3 Characteristics of safety measure studies

From: Truck-bicycle safety: an overview of methods of study, risk factors and research needs

Study Aim Method Measure Type of measure Type of truck
Fenn et al., 2005 [24] Assess the casualty reduction potential through compulsory fitting of close proximity blind spot mirrors to HGV Literature review, accident analysis, vehicle analysis, surveys Compulsory fitting - Blind spot mirrors Legislation - Vehicle equipment All types of HGV
Niewoehner & Berg, 2005 [23] Investigations into the field of view Field tests Mirrors, Fresnel lens Vehicle equipment - active Goods vehicles over 3.5 t
Knight et al., 2006 [42] Investigate the benefits of adopting an integrated approach to several measures Literature review, computer simulation, spray measurement, cost-benefit calculation Sideguards, front and rear underrun protection, spray suppression Legislation - Vehicle equipment HGV
Feist et al., 2008 [43] Evaluate several concepts Conceptual analysis, simulation, expert panel discussion Energy-absorbing front end Vehicle equipment - passive HGV
Ahrholdt et al., 2009 [44] Development of traffic safety application Field test Combined perception system Vehicle + infrastructure equipment - active HGV (rigid truck)
FDS International (2010) [34]. Evaluate behaviour related to roadside mirrors Survey Roadside mirror Infrastructure equipment LGV (long heavy vehicles)
Cookson & Knight, 2010 [25] Inform consideration of the effectiveness of sideguards on HGV to pedal cycle accidents Literature review, before-after comparison, accident analysis Sideguards Vehicle equipment - passive HGV
Lausnay et al., 2011 [45] To develop and test a means of detecting cyclists Static and dynamic test Wireless communication system Vehicle equipment - active Truck
Lakshminarayana et al., 2011 [46] Investigation of bicyclist kinematics during side and rear-end collisions Simulation Energy absorbing frontal system Vehicle equipment - passive HCV (Heavy Commercial Vehicle, 16 t)
Twisk et al., 2013 [37] Evaluate awareness programs Experiment Awareness program for adolescent cyclists Education Lorry
Thompson et al., 2013 [47] Develop and test a system using in-vehicle three-dimensional (3D) sound as a technique for augmenting truck drivers’ situational awareness Experiment, field test 3D sound Vehicle equipment - active Truck
Rechnitzer & Grzebieta, 2014 [48] Estimate the effects of side underrun protection Summarizes the types of side-underrun systems used in Europe and Asia, Expert estimation Side underrun protection Legislation – vehicle equipment Truck
Robinson & Cuerden, 2014 [49] Estimates the probable effect of removing exemptions and achieving full retrofitting compliance in London Prediction Retrofitting - Side guards and mirror Legislation - vehicle equipment Medium (3.5–7.5 t) and Heavy (over 7.5 t) Goods Vehicles
Beeck & Goedeme, 2015 [50] Develop an active safety system based solely on the vision input of the blind spot camera Experiment Detection and tracking framework Vehicle equipment - active Truck
Miah et al., 2015 [51] Evaluate and validate sensor accuracy Calculation Cyclist Alert System Vehicle equipment - active Heavy Vehicle
Miah et al., 2015 [52] Present a new concept Experiment Cyclist Alert System Vehicle equipment - active Heavy Vehicle
Islam et al., 2015 [53] Propose the optimal controller (using particle swarm optimization technique) Modelling Optimal steering control Vehicle equipment - active A-double combination (semi-trailer)
Davis & White, 2015 [54] Provide overview about means utilized not relevant Safety programme Management Construction vehicles
Summerskill & Marshall, 2015 [55] Redesign truck concept and evaluate direct vision Projection technique Improved direct vision Vehicle design Different types of truck cabins
Pyykonen et al., 2015 [56] Development of a monitoring system for assisting truck driver training Field test Training vehicle Education HGV
Jia and Cebon, 2016 [57] Build a prototype system and test it in real time Field test Collision avoidance system - ultrasonic sensors on the truck Vehicle equipment - active Tipper truck
Seiniger et al., 2017 [58] Provide knowledge for testing procedures of various driver assistance systems Field test Driver assistance system for blind spots Vehicle equipment - active Single tractor
Richter & Sachs, 2017 [32] Evaluate driving and gaze behaviour using turn-off assistant, suggest infrastructure measures Experiment Turn-off assistant Vehicle equipment - active Van, delivery truck, truck without trailer, semitrailer truck
Martin et al., 2017 [59] Evaluate cost-effectiveness of a range of clustered safety measures, identify regulatory options and future research needs Review of technologies, systematic review of literature on safety measures, CBA calculations Direct/indirect vision, impact protection, front underrun protection, VRU airbag Legislation - Vehicle equipment/Design HGV (N2 and N3 category)