Skip to main content

Table 2 Means and standard deviations of the dependent variables

From: Multimodal warning design for take-over request in conditionally automated driving

Dependent VariablesMean (Std)
Event 1: Unplanned ODD exitEvent2: Planned
ODD exit
Visual onlyHaptic onlyVisual-auditoryAuditory onlyAuditory-hapticVisual-hapticVisual-auditory-hapticVisual-
auditory
Visual-
Auditory-
haptic
VHVAAAHVHVAHVA2VAH2
RT (Human reaction time for the TOR) [s]19.93 (8.00)2.11 (0.77)2.32 (0.74)2.20 (0.60)2.21 (0.69)1.73 (0.44)1.75 (0.45)2.28 (0.71)2.01 (0.55)
TTL (Time to lane change) [s]42.36 (15.46)8.13 (1.64)8.00 (1.08)7.76 (1.08)7.12 (0.69)7.42 (1.47)7.19 (0.45)15.37 (1.10)15.98 (1.05)
SDLP (Standard deviation of lane position) [m]0.27 (0.47)1.63 (0.35)1.50 (0.32)1.36 (0.34)1.42 (0.39)1.30 (0.36)1.26 (0.37)3.13 (0.33)2.99 (0.49)
SRR (Steering wheel reversal) [s-1]0.20 (0.33)1.01 (0.47)0.81 (0.41)0.92 (0.52)0.94 (0.42)1.09 (0.43)1.14 (0.45)0.74 (0.27)0.73 (0.31)
SCR (Skin conductance response onset time) [s]16.92 (12.60)7.13 (6.10)7.78 (6.14)6.59 (6.40)6.34 (7.46)7.07 (9.47)5.28 (3.88)8.41 (9.20)5.93 (5.14)
AHR (Average heart rate) [bpm]74.57 (11.92)80.28 (9.99)80.02 (8.72)81.42 (9.10)80.47 (10.09)79.35 (10.54)79.31 (9.79)74.53 (17.57)78.17 (9.81)