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Table 1 Summary of the considered literature about carpooling (in the text below by order of appearance)

From: Learning from the real practices of users of a smart carpooling app

ReferenceDatePlaceSampleMethodAimCarpool studied
Bonsall, Spencer & Tang [6]1984West Yorkshire, England265 commuter members of the carpooling programmeSurveys, interviewsAssess the implementation of a carpooling programmeShort distance work-related
Horowitz & Sheth [19]1976Chicago, USA822 commuters (323 carpoolers, 382 solo drivers, 117, public transport users)SurveyPerceived advantages and disadvantages of carpoolingShort distance, work-related
Richard [33]2011Nîmes, France67 students non-carpoolers, 105 students (54% of carpoolersa)SurveysAttitudes and perceived barriersUnclear
Debroux [14]2018France23 carpoolers (drivers)Autobiographical interviewsDefine the determinants of engagement in the practice of carpoolingWork-related
Créno & Cahour [12]2014France25 long-distance carpoolers (6 drivers, 19 passengers)Explicitation interviewsCharacterize user experience of carpoolers (process of building trust)Planned long distance
Li et al. [22]2007Dallas & Houston, USA310 carpoolersb 4324 solo driversReuse of survey dataReasons for choosing to carpoolShort distance, work-related
Covivo SAS & CGI [10]2011Isère, France488 members of the carpooling programmeSurvey & usage dataExperimentation in dynamic carpoolingShort distance, mainly work-related
Amirkiaee & Evange-lopoulos [3]2018Southwestern USA300 students (4% using a carpooling app)Scenario-based surveyRole of attitudes in the intention to use carpoolingShort distance, study-related
Delhomme & Gheorghiu [15]2016France1207 French drivers (52.5% of carpoolersc)SurveyInvestigate the main determinants of the use of carpoolingUnclear
Bachmann, Hanimann & Artho [4]2018Switzerland342 people (181 passengers and 161 driversSurveyLink between attitudes and intention/carpool useUnclear
Margolin, Misch, & Stahr [24]1978Washington, USA516 people (49.6% of carpoolers)Focus groups SurveysCompare the carpooling attitudes of carpoolers versus solo driversShort distance, work-related
Radke, et al. [32]2011AustraliaA small group of personsInterviews Focus groupsDevelop an app that takes into account privacy and securityAd hoc carpooling
Dueker, Bair & Levin [16]1977Iowa City, USASample of employees of three big companiesSynthesis of research conductedIdentify the barriers and motivations for carpoolingShort distance, work-related
Nielsen et al. [30]2015Denmark47 persons (7% of carpoolersd)Semi-structured interviews Focus groupsElements that influence the adoption of carpooling. Define market segments.Short distance
Mote & Whitestone [28]2011Washington, USA12 slugs and driversSemi-structured interviewsInterest in the practice of slugging to highlight the impact of social context on transportationSlugging (ad hoc carpooling)
Deakin et al. [13]2010Berkeley, USA58 people (focus group) 444 persons (survey)Mobility data Survey Focus groupsProviding insights about a dynamic carpooling service featuresShort distance dynamic carpooling
Chaube [8]2010Blacksburg, USA125 peopleSurvey Usability studyUnderstanding the perception of trust in a software carpooling application to design itShort distance, commute-related
Créno & Cahour [11]2015France25 carpoolers 25 non-carpoolersSemi-structured and explicitation interviewsIdentify the perceived risks, the sources of trust and mistrustPlanned long-distance carpooling
Gardner & Abraham [18]2007Brighton & Hove, England19 car commutersInterviewIdentify reason for drivingNC
Schaeffer et al. [35]1988USA46 drivers (19 carpoolers and 27 single drivers)Physiological measures (heart rate and blood pressure) Survey Performance measurementMeasurement of the effect of morning rush hour commuting for single and carpool driversShort distance work-related
Allen [2]2009USA6 commutersInterviewIdentify the barriers of carpooling to design an online serviceShort distance commute-related
  1. aThe author points out that the majority of these carpoolers do not really carpool in the strict sense (i.e., with an unknown person)
  2. b75% of them practice fampooling
  3. cThe part of fampooling is not specified
  4. dA carpooler is a person who carpools at least four times a month