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Table 3 Literature classification based on problem characteristics

From: The traffic signal control problem for intersections: a review

Reference Network Type of road users Priority Real-time strategies Objectives Constraints
Lane Network type Cycle length Green phase duration Phase sequence
Dunne and Potts [14] 1 I PC No Actuated D N M, X F
Gazis [16] 1 A (1 × 2) PC No Fixed D N M, X F
Ross et al. [18] 3 I PC No Actuated D M, X M, X F
D’ans and Gazis [20] 1 A (1 × 2) PC No Actuated D F M, X F
Michalopoulos [22] 1 I PC No Actuated D M, X M, X F
Michalopoulos [24] 1 A (1 × 2) PC No Actuated D F M, X F
Smith [26] 1 I (3-leg) PC No Fixed TH F N F
Improta and Cantarella [28] 3 I (6-leg) PC, P No Actuated D/TH/CL N M F
Gallivan and Heydecker [7] 2 I (3-leg) PC No Actuated D/TH X M S
Gartner et al. [31] 1 A (1 × N) PC No Actuated D/B M, X N S
Dell’Olmo and Mirchandani [33] 1 A (1 × 3) PC No Adaptive D, B F N N
Wong [35] 2 G (15 TL) PC No Actuated D, TS M, X M F
Sen and Head [37] 1 I PC No Adaptive D, TS, XQL N M S
Silcock [39] 4 I (3-leg) PC, P, M, LGVs, HGVs No Actuated D, TH M, X M, X S
Spall and Chin [10] 1 G (3 × 3) PC No Actuated D/QL N N F
De Schutter and De Moor [42] 1 I PC No Adaptive D/QL N M, X N
Lo [43] 1 A (1 × 2) PC No Actuated D F M, X F
Wong and Yang [45] 1 G (3 × 3) PC, P No Actuated D, TT N M F
Lee and Kwang [47] 4 G (7/9/13 TL) PC No Actuated D N N S
Trabia et al. [49] 3 I PC No Actuated D, TS N M, X F
Niittymaki and Pursula [51] 2 I PC, P No Actuated D, TS N M S
Chang and Lin [53] 1 I PC No Actuated D N M, X F
Mirchandani and Head [6] A (1 × 9) PC No Adaptive D N N F
Roozemond [56] PC No Adaptive General loss N N N
Lo et al. [58] 2 A (1 × 2) PC No Actuated D N M, X F
Wong et al. [60] 3 G (13 TL) PC, P No Actuated D, TS M, X M F
De Schutter [62] 1 I PC No Actuated D, QL, XQL N M, X S
Dion and Hellinga [64] 3 I PC, TV Yes Actuated D, TT, TS N M, X F
Abdulhai et al. [66] I PC No Actuated D N M, X
Choy et al. [68] G (25 TL) PC No Actuated D, TST N N F
Wong and Wong [70] N I PC, P No Actuated TH, CL M, X M N
Lin and Wang [13] 1 A (1 × 2) PC, EV Yes Actuated D, TS F / N M, X N
Chang and Sun [72] N G (25 TL) PC No Actuated D, TS M, X M, X F
Di Febbraro et al. [74] 1 G (3 × 2) PC, TV, EV Yes Actuated TT M, X M, X F
Murat and Gedizlioglu [76] 2 I PC No Actuated D N M, X S
Bazzan [78] 2 A (1 × 10) PC No Actuated D M, X M F
Srinivasan et al. [15] G (25 TL) PC No Actuated D, TST N N N
Boillot et al. [17] 2 I PC No Actuated D N N F
Yu and Recker [19] 2 I, G (5 TL) PC No Adaptive D, XQL N M, X F
Stevanovic et al. [21] G (12 TL), A PC, TV, P Yes Actuated D/PD/TH/TT/TS M, X M, X S
Villalobos et al. [23] 1 I, I (3-leg) PC No Actuated QL N N F
Yin [25] 2 I PC No Actuated D M, X M F
Cai et al. [27] 1 I PC No Actuated D N M S
Ekeila et al. [29] I, A (1 × 10) PC, P, TV Yes Adaptive D N N F
Arel et al. [30] 2 G (5 TL) PC No Actuated D, ICB N N S
Haddad et al. [32] 1 I PC No Actuated General loss F N N
Balaji et al. [34] G (29 TL) PC No Actuated D, TH, VS N N F
Prashanth and Bhatnagar [36] N A (1 × 2,1 × 8), G (2 × 2,3 × 3) PC No Actuated D, TH N N S
Liu and Chang [38] N A (1 × 4) PC No Actuated TH/TT M, X M F
Adacher [40] I PC (and P) No Actuated D M, X M, X F
He et al. [41] 1 A (1 × 8) PC, TV, EV Yes Actuated D N M, X S
McKenney and White [9] 2 G (9 × 7) PC No Actuated VS F M F
Zheng and Recker [44] G (38 TL) PC No Adaptive D, TT, XQL, VS N M, X S
Christofa et al. [46] N I, I (6-leg) PC, P, TV, PTV Yes Actuated PD F M, X F
Zhang et al. [48] 2 A (1 × 4) PC No Actuated D, E N M, X S
Varaiya [50] 1 A (1 × N) PC No Actuated TH M N S
Li et al. [52] 2 I PC No Actuated TH, QL N N S
He et al. [54] 1 A (1 × 2) PC, P, TV Yes Actuated D N M, X F
Jin and Ma [55] 5 I PC No Actuated D N M, X S
Feng et al. [57] 1 I PC No Adaptive D, QL M, X M, X S
Le et al. [59] 1–3 A (1 × 2), G (8 × 9) PC No Actuated TH F N F
Hu et al. [61] N A (1 × 2) PC, TV, PTV Yes Actuated D, PD F M F
Han et al. [63] 1 G (2 × 2) PC No Actuated D, E N N N
Christofa et al. [65] 1 A (1 × N) PC, P, TV, PTV Yes Adaptive PD F M F
Choi et al. [67] N I PC No Adaptive D, TH, TT, E, FC, VS N N F
Portilla et al. [69] 3 A (1 × 2) PC, B No Actuated TT, QL N N F
Chandan et al. [71] 5 I PC, TV, HGVs No Actuated D, TS N M, X F
Lee et al. [8] N I PC No Adaptive D/TH M, X M, X S
Jin and Ma [73] 5 I PC No Actuated D, TH N M, X S
Aslani et al. [75] G (50 TL) PC, P No Actuated TT, TS, E, FC N N F
Li et al. [77] 2 A (1 × 3) PC No Actuated D M, X M, X F
Wang et al. [79] 4 I PC, B No Actuated D, S M, X M S