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Table 1 Different models of traffic congestion

From: Quantifying the phantom jam externality: the case of an Autobahn section in Germany

Model Main/seminal authors Source of externality Economic policy
Bottleneck [11] demand exceeds bottleneck capacity toll to change departure times
Bathtub [16, 19] traffic jam at one point spreads into large area toll to reduce inflow in congested area
Speed-flow [2022] other drivers induce speed reduction toll to reduce number of vehicles
Phantom jam [15, 23] unspecified driving errors result in stochastic traffic flow break down toll to reduce number of vehicles and change departure times