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Table 3 Regression models for the increased amount in daily internet usages for different activities

From: The trade-off behaviours between virtual and physical activities during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic period

  Variable ranges Change in use of internet for work meetings Change in use of internet for entertainment Change in use of internet for personal calls Change in use of internet for work Change in online shopping (groceries) Change in online shopping (non-groceries)
Variable ranges   [−32.5, + 32.5] [− 32.5, + 32.5] [− 32.5, + 32.5] [− 32.5, + 32.5] [− 100%, + 100%] [− 100%, + 100%]
   B t B t B t B t B t B t
(Constant)   −0.688 −0.27 4.257 2.12* 4.152 2.15* 3.100 1.09 0.085 1.19 0.133 1.59
Being a female 0, 1 −1.608 −2.49* 0.762 1.55 −0.375 − 0.79 − 0.458 − 0.65 0.009 0.50 0.022 1.04
Being a full-time worker 0, 1 3.332 3.10* 1.123 1.42 1.265 1.65** 3.678 3.13* −0.060 −2.10* 0.091 2.73*
Being a student 0, 1 4.625 3.84* 2.692 3.06* 3.425 4.02* 3.292 2.50* −0.061 −1.92** 0.009 0.24
Have university education 0, 1 2.456 3.27* 1.036 1.82** 1.958 3.55* 0.256 0.31 0.039 1.89** 0.033 1.39
Having children within household 0, 1 0.600 0.88 −0.775 −1.49 0.345 0.69 0.323 0.43 −0.004 −0.19 0.010 0.46
Having adults within household 0, 1 −0.021 −0.03 0.091 0.17 −0.301 − 0.59 − 0.308 − 0.40 − 0.006 − 0.30 − 0.016 −0.71
Having elderly within household 0, 1 −1.012 − 1.16 − 0.852 − 1.29 − 0.804 − 1.26 −1.243 − 1.31 − 0.012 − 0.50 − 0.016 − 0.58
Living in Sweden 0, 1 1.797 1.45 −0.198 − 0.21 −1.225 − 1.33 − 0.243 −0.18 0.048 1.42 −0.043 − 1.07
Living in Italy 0, 1 1.664 1.40 0.381 0.42 −1.318 − 1.51 0.221 0.17 0.054 1.66** −0.045 −1.19
Living in India 0, 1 −1.708 −1.10 1.592 1.31 −2.339 −2.00* −3.434 −2.02* 0.071 1.67** −0.386 −7.65*
Change in trips for the given activity [−40, + 40] −0.129 −5.03* − 0.028 −2.35* − 0.086 − 2.83* −0.069 −2.45* − 0.002 −1.35 −0.004 − 1.76**
Changes in eating out trips [−40, + 40] − 0.001 −0.85
Safety perceived in the workplace 0, 1 −0.170 −0.23 − 0.552 −0.69
Safety perceived outside 0, 1 − 1.996 − 3.06* − 1.302 − 2.07*
Safety perceived in stores 0, 1 − 0.069 − 3.00* − 0.076 − 2.81*
Safety perceived in receiving home-deliveries 0, 1 − 0.023 − 1.11 0.017 0.68
Safety perceived using public transport 0, 1 −2.039 −1.77** − 0.456 −0.54 − 1.369 − 1.67** −1.653 − 1.31 −0.020 − 0.59 0.006 0.15
Safety perceived using private car 0, 1 −0.477 −0.45 − 0.114 −0.14 − 0.496 −0.61 −1.401 − 1.20 0.032 1.07 −0.005 − 0.14
R   .336a   .244a   .263a   .220a   .198a   .388a  
R square   0.113   0.059   0.069   0.048   0.039   0.150  
Adjusted R square   0.097   0.042   0.052   0.031   0.019   0.134  
Std. Error of the estimate   8.712   6.62491   6.41037   9.52366   0.23686   0.27914  
Number of samples   781   781   781   781   781   781  
  1. A larger t coefficient means a relatively larger increase in internet usage, compared to their counterparts. One star (*) indicates 95% confidence level, two stars (**) indicates 90% confidence level