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Table 3 List of (potential) key actors involved in the development of Merwede (adapted from [6], pp. 17–18 [22];)

From: Governance challenges of mobility platforms: the case of Merwede, Utrecht

Actors Phase(s) of involvement Responsibilities
Landowners, united in a Collective of Owners (six developers and the City of Utrecht (as a private agent)) Development phase and operational phase - Developing physical elements of mobility concept (e.g. parking spots, mobility shops) and public space (e.g. bicycle bridges)
- Selling physical elements of mobility concept (when completed and operational)
City of Utrecht (as a public agent) Development phase and operational phase - Implementing mobility policies that support mobility concept (e.g. parking policy, bicycle policy, Park & Ride)
- Aligning mobility policies and contracts with other governments
- Investing in public infrastructure
Mobility enterprise (including mobility director) Operational phase - Safeguarding, operating and further developing mobility concept (e.g. quality management, traffic control)
- Owning or renting parking spots, renting mobility shop
- Monitoring and tweaking progress and use of mobility concept
- Managing contract(s) with service operator(s)
- Coordination partnership between parties involved (e.g. landowners, City of Utrecht, real estate owners) for mobility issues
Mobility service operator(s) Operational phase - Recruiting and coordinating transport provider(s)
- Providing memberships/subscriptions and collecting service fees
- Operating digital platform
- Operating mobility shop (customer service)
- Overseeing further development of services
Transport provider(s) Operational phase - Providing mobility service(s)
User(s) Operational phase - Using mobility service(s)
Parking operator(s) Operational phase - Operating parking garages (e.g. reservation system, regulation of access)