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Table 1 Comparison of organizational setups among alliances, and E-marketplace platforms

From: Horizontal collaboration in the freight transport sector: barrier and decision-making frameworks

  Transport alliances (see an example in [23]) Electronic shipping marketplace (see an example in [21])
Membership Contract-based membership to ensure responsibilities
Partners might be required to pay membership fees or be shareholders to enter the alliance
Non-contract-based membership but partners have to sign the electronic license agreement to use the platform and pay a fee
Management and ownership CTN management is made by a limited liability company (LLC) owned by alliance partners
The board of the LLC includes representatives from the largest partners
Strategic decisions might flow from above to down or might be made in a horizontally centralized way
Partners who do not accept the decisions can leave the alliance
The electronic marketplace is developed, managed, and owned by an IT specialist company or 3PL
Partners (users) do not necessarily have shares in the ownership of the platform
Main duties The LLC is responsible for operating the CTNs, providing the CDSSs, and expanding the infrastructure and transport resources
The CTNs are formed by the partners’ assets, e.g., freight terminals
Partners and the LLC are responsible for sales and marketing, feeding the alliance network, and executing transportation services for the alliance
The developer company develops the marketplace to connect the users
Partners develop collaborative solutions themselves
The developer company operates, improves, and markets the marketplace
The developer company verifies all necessary documents of a new user before joining the marketplace