Skip to main content

Table 1 Classification task ranked by difficulty and score, for mode detection

From: Transport behavior-mining from smartphones: a review

References No. Classes Score Metric Validation Area
Zhou et al. [131] 6 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car, Rail, Plain 86.5% Accuracy Hold-out Beijing
Bohte and Maat [21] 6 Car, Train, Bus-Tram-Metro, Foot, Bicycle, Other 70.00% Accuracy n.p. Netherlands
Martin et al. [75] 5 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car, Rail 96.8% Accuracy Manifold-cross-validation Minnesota
Jahangiri and Rakha [55] 5 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car, Run 95.1% F-Score Manifold-cross-validation, Out-of-bag-estimate Tennessee
Semanjski et al. [96] 5 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car, Rail 94.00% Accuracy Manifold-cross-validation Leuven
Zhou et al. [132] 5 Walk, Bike, Run, in-Vehicle, Stationary 93.8% Accuracy Hold-out Georgia (USA)
Zhu et al. [134] 5 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car, Rail 93.45% F1-Score Manifold-cross-validation Beijing
Xiao et al. [119] 5 Walk, Bike, el-Bike, Car, Bus 92.74% Accuracy Manifold-cross-validation Shanghai
Rasmussen et al. [90] 5 Walk, Bike, Car, Bus, Rail 92.4% Accuracy n.p. Copenhagen
Yazdizadeh et al. [122] 5 Walk, Bike, Public transit, Car, Car and Public transit 88.00% F1-Score weighted average Manifold-cross-validation Montreal
Dabiri and Heaslip [31] 5 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car, Rail 84.8% F-Score Manifold-cross-validation Beijing
Byon and Liang [22] 5 Auto, Bus, Streetcar, Bike, Walk 82.00% F1-Score weighted average Hold-out Toronto
Thomas et al. [104] 5 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car, Rail 82.00% Accuracy n.p. Netherlands, [43]
Dabiri et al. [32] 5 Walk, Bike, Bus, Drive, Train 76.4% F1-Score weighted average Manifold-cross-validation Beijing
Jiang et al. [57] 4 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car 98.00% Accuracy Hold-out Beijing
Assemi et al. [11] 4 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car 94.7% Accuracy Hold-out New-Zealand
Yazdizadeh et al. [123] 4 Walk, Bike, Transit, Car 91.8% Accuracy Manifold-cross-validation Montreal
Mäenpää et al. [72] 4 Walk, Bike, Bus, Car 90.7% F1-Score Manifold-cross-validation, Out-of-bag-estimate Beijing. 1 week BUS trajectories, 1000 trajectories from Open Street Map (OSM)
Yazdizadeh et al. [124] 4 Walk, Bike, Transit, Car 83.4% Accuracy Manifold-cross-validation Montreal