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Table 1 Properties of transport features that determine barrier effects

From: Disentangling barrier effects of transport infrastructure: synthesising research for the practice of impact assessment

Properties Type Description
Physical
Static Motorways and feeder roads, railways, waterways Fences, railings, noise screens, height differences (embankment, ditches), road width, traffic isles, visual conditions at crossing points [22]
Dynamic Transversal, across a feature (car or tram traffic) Traffic flow, traffic direction, speed, proportion of heavy vehicles, parked vehicles [8], bunching of vehicles [57], waiting time at controlled crossings [87], snow clearing
Longitudinal, along a feature (car or tram traffic) Traffic flow, speed, proportion of heavy vehicles, parked vehicles [67], affecting mostly bicycles [48, 67, 87]
Psychological
Characteristics of transport features and their environment that have a deterring effect without creating a physical barrier Conditions for fear of accidents Experienced risk of traffic accidents occurring when crossing or travelling along a transport feature [70, 78]
Conditions for fear of crime Lighting, visibility, escape opportunities, social surveillance [6, 142]
Conditions for discomfort Noise, pollution [60, 92], dust [30], smell, vibrations, splashes, less attractive routes [40], amount of scrap on and around crossing facilities [88]
Formal
Traffic rules   Traffic lights, possibility for manually controlled traffic lights, one-way streets [87], parental rule that a child is not allowed to cross a road [87, 130]
Planned infrastructure projects   Reserves in land use planning documents can create zones that form a barrier for transport [31, 43], uncertainty about the possible barrier effects of planned infrastructure can impact land prices and urban development [127]