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Table 10 Techniques for monetisation of barrier effects

From: Disentangling barrier effects of transport infrastructure: synthesising research for the practice of impact assessment

Technique Examples References
Estimated values Using general estimates to assign a monetary value to a barrier effect Flowerdew and Hammond [49], Monzon et al. [106]
Contingent valuation method (measuring Willingness To Pay (WTP) for non-market goods using bidding techniques) Measuring WTP for avoiding a motorway Grudemo [55], Soguel [128]
Measuring WTP for avoiding a barrier to a recreation area Grudemo et al. [56]
Choice modelling (measuring preferences or WTP based on choice experiments involving different combinations of characteristics of a barrier) Measuring WTP for reducing barrier effects of different types of roads, involving characteristics related to road design, traffic intensity and crossing facilities Anciaes and Jones [10]
Measuring WTP for reducing barrier effects of roads Anciaes et al. [6]
Measuring WTP for removing a barrier between two neighbourhoods, taking into consideration amenity characteristics Grisolía et al. [54]
Measuring Willingness To Accept a new road that reduces access to a recreational area, using increased leisure time as a result of decreased travel time as a payment vehicle Ivehammar [72]
Hedonic modelling (measuring WTP for different attributes of housing (e.g. view, distance to station) based on analysis of house sales) The impacts on WTP for housing related to reductions in accessibility caused by a motorway Broach et al. [33], Eliasson et al. [45], Ellis [46]
Objective valuations (using the value of related market goods as proxy for the cost of barrier effects) Socio-economic costs (increase in traffic accidents, travel time, school transport, sick leave, parking costs etc.) when potential bicycle links are not realised due to barriers Sælensminde [124]
Time spent accompanying children to school Tate and Mara [129]
Monetisation of delay Baart and Molenkamp [15], Jarlebring et al. [74]
Multiplying the total population by the number of seconds of delay that roads and motorways imply. The resulting time is multiplied by a monetary value van Essen et al. [139]
Demand for crossing facilities as a decreasing function of the generalised cost of crossing (such as time to reach the crossing facility, effort of crossing) Héran [67]