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Table 6 Direct barrier effects of traffic and transport infrastructure

From: Disentangling barrier effects of transport infrastructure: synthesising research for the practice of impact assessment

Effects on Description
Crossing effort Delays, physical effort, discomfort, stress, and fear of traffic accidents while crossing a transport feature, due to its static or dynamic barrier characteristics or the quality, design or planning of crossing routes and facilities (transversal barriers, see section “Transport features”) [6]*,[18], [29], [71]*,[76]*
Passing effort Physical effort, comfort, stress and traffic risks while passing along a traffic feature, affecting cyclists especially (longitudinal barriers, see section “Transport features”). [67, 87, 104]
Fear of crime Fear and anxiety about becoming the victim of crime, typically related to crossing facilities [6]*
Trip effort Extra travel time, physical effort, comfort, stress and cost for trips, e.g. to schools, workplace, facilities and social contacts. [29]*,[31]*,[39], [59]*,[76]*,[107]*,[108]*
Detours and delays at level crossings that lead to increased travel time and reduce the reliability of service vehicles such as mail and waste collection [38, 67, 95, 111] and public transport [41]
Change in the number of routes available to reach a destination [40, 97]
Change of possibilities for drivers to access destinations located adjacent to a road [17], when the road is upgraded to motorway standard, possibilities to park at the roadside are removed and the number of exits are reduced
Travel time between different parts of a farm [20]
Accessibility Change in the available choice of opportunities within a given travel time or distance [31]*,[40], [50], [108]*
Change of consumer base of facilities, measured as the change in the number of residents within a certain travel distance of time from a facility [17, 37, 91, 130]
  1. *Empirically supported effect