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Table 7 Indirect barrier effects of traffic and transport infrastructure

From: Disentangling barrier effects of transport infrastructure: synthesising research for the practice of impact assessment

Effects on Description
Frequency of visits When trips take more effort due to a barrier, the frequency of visits can change or motivate people to suppress trips all together [9]*,[71]*,[96]*,[108]*
Visited destinations Changes in accessibility can motivate people to reorient themselves regarding shops they usually visit, looking for opportunities that do not involve crossing [50, 62, 108]*
Routing of trips Routing of trips can be changed to avoid barriers [40]
Organisation of trips Timing and organisation of trips can be changed, with people combining different destinations in one trip [59]*, [71]*
Mode of transport Increased distances or changed levels of traffic safety can make people change mode, typically choosing to drive instead of walk or cycle to everyday destinations [47]*,[76]*,[115]*
  1. *Empirically supported effect