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Table 2 Ride-sharing definitions within literature

From: A systematic literature review of ride-sharing platforms, user factors and barriers

Literature Year Location Definition
Abrahamse and Keall [1] 2012 N. Zealand Carpooling is defined as the shared use of a private vehicle by the driver and one or more passengers (replacing the use of one or more other vehicles), generally for the purpose of commuting to and from work
Agatz et al. [2] 2011 US Ride-sharing refers to a system where an automated process employed by a ride-share provider matches up drivers and riders on very short notice, which can range from a few minutes to a few hours before departure time
Brownstone and Golob [11] 1992 US Carpooling (hereafter called ride-sharing) is defined in the Southern California sense as two or more occupants per vehicle
Chan and Shaheen [20] 2012 US Ride-sharing is the grouping of travellers into common trips by car or van. When a ride-sharing payment is collected, it partially covers the driver’s cost. It is not intended to result in a financial gain. Moreover, the driver has a common origin and/or destination with the passengers
Furuhata et al. [38] 2013 US Ride-sharing refers to a mode of transportation in which individual travellers share a vehicle for a trip and split travel costs such as gas, toll, and parking fees with others that have similar itineraries and time schedules. Ride-sharing is a system that can combine the flexibility and speed of private cars with the reduced cost of fixed-line systems, at the expense of convenience
Gargiulo et al. [39] 2015 EU Ride-sharing is the transportation of persons in a motor vehicle when such transportation is incidental to the principal purpose of the driver, which is to reach a destination and not to transport persons for profit
Guidotti et al. [45] 2017 EU Carpooling is the act where two or more travellers share the same car for a common trip
Kladeftiras and Antoniou [55] 2015 EU (Greece) Dynamic ride-sharing and traditional carpooling both involve pre-arrangements, but dynamic ride-sharing differs in the fact that the scheduling of the trip occurs in a case-by-case basis
Lee and Savelsbergh [57] 2015 US Dynamic ride-sharing is a recent alternative in which people with similar travel plans are matched and travel together. Ride-sharing systems, where participants with similar travel itineraries are paired together
Nourinejad and Roorda [71] 2016 Canada Dynamic ride-sharing involves a service provider that matches potential drivers and passengers with similar itineraries allowing them to travel together and share the costs. These services are dynamic in nature since users announce their participation at any time by either requesting a ride as a passenger or offering a ride as a driver
Shaheen and Cohen [82] 2019 US Shared ride services allow riders to share a ride to a common destination. They include ride-sharing (carpooling and vanpooling); ride-splitting (a pooled version of ride-sourcing/transportation network companies); taxi sharing; and micro transit
Wang, Winter and Ronald [102] 2017 Australia Ride-sharing is a mode of transportation where a driver takes passengers on a non-commercial, e.g., shared cost basis, for accompanied costs such as petrol