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Table 1 Rationale for TTF suggestions based on Lee et al. [17], Schoettle and Sivak [23]

From: Configuring user information by considering trust threatening factors associated with automated vehicles


Reason for adoption/Exclusion

Main Cause of TTF (bold font: adopted TTF in this study)

Similar causes


Adopted in this study

No system problems occurred in automated mode

Lack of informationa (TTF1)

Anxiety about interacting with pedestrians and cyclistsb and anxiety about interacting with non-self-driving vehiclesb

Distrust due to lack of information about the surroundings and performance of automated system


Out of controla (TTF2)

Distrust because the system assesses and functions on its own during operation without providing users with a choice


Unpredictabilitya (TTF3)

Lack of confidencea, anxiety about self-driving vehicles getting confused by unexpected situationsb and anxiety about system performance in poor weatherb

Distrust due to suspicions about the ability of the automated system to respond to its surroundings


Value incongruencea (TTF4)

Machine-likea and anxiety about self-driving vehicles not driving as well as human drivers in generalb

Distrust due to differences in driving styles between an automated system and human users in normal scenarios

Excluded from this study due to our study scope

Automated system problems during automated mode

Functional incompetencea

Anxiety about safety consequences of system failureb

Distrust due to system and vehicle problems


Anxiety about system securityb

Anxiety about vehicle securityb and anxiety about data privacyb

Distrust due to security failure of the system


Automated system not in use

Fiduciary irresponsibilitya

Legal liability of usersb

Distrust due to the lack of clarity on the assignment of responsibility for an accident during automated driving


Anxiety about learning to use self-driving vehiclesb

Distrust due to problems caused by the user’s poor use of the system’s functions

  1. aCauses of user distrust in automated vehicles [17]
  2. bCauses of user distrust in automated vehicles [23]