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Table 1 Rationale for TTF suggestions based on Lee et al. [17], Schoettle and Sivak [23]

From: Configuring user information by considering trust threatening factors associated with automated vehicles

Adoption/exclusion Reason for adoption/Exclusion Main Cause of TTF (bold font: adopted TTF in this study) Similar causes Definition
Adopted in this study No system problems occurred in automated mode Lack of informationa (TTF1) Anxiety about interacting with pedestrians and cyclistsb and anxiety about interacting with non-self-driving vehiclesb Distrust due to lack of information about the surroundings and performance of automated system
   Out of controla (TTF2) Distrust because the system assesses and functions on its own during operation without providing users with a choice
   Unpredictabilitya (TTF3) Lack of confidencea, anxiety about self-driving vehicles getting confused by unexpected situationsb and anxiety about system performance in poor weatherb Distrust due to suspicions about the ability of the automated system to respond to its surroundings
   Value incongruencea (TTF4) Machine-likea and anxiety about self-driving vehicles not driving as well as human drivers in generalb Distrust due to differences in driving styles between an automated system and human users in normal scenarios
Excluded from this study due to our study scope Automated system problems during automated mode Functional incompetencea Anxiety about safety consequences of system failureb Distrust due to system and vehicle problems
   Anxiety about system securityb Anxiety about vehicle securityb and anxiety about data privacyb Distrust due to security failure of the system
  Automated system not in use Fiduciary irresponsibilitya Legal liability of usersb Distrust due to the lack of clarity on the assignment of responsibility for an accident during automated driving
   Anxiety about learning to use self-driving vehiclesb Distrust due to problems caused by the user’s poor use of the system’s functions
  1. aCauses of user distrust in automated vehicles [17]
  2. bCauses of user distrust in automated vehicles [23]