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Table 1 A list of reviewed studies on the CAV dedicated lane

From: Impact of connected and autonomous vehicle dedicated lane on the freeway traffic efficiency

Index of study Composition of mixed traffic Method Performance measures Discussed variables Main results
Link-based studies
1 Hussain et al. [7] CAV and HV An analytical model Capacity;
Mixed headway settings;
Number of CAV DLs;
Mixed traffic demand
More aggressive CAVs need less DLs
2 Ghiasi et al. [1] CAV and HV A Markov chain method Capacity MPRs;
CAV platooning intensity;
Mixed headway settings;
Number of CAV DLs
No CAV DL is the optimal solution in the unsaturated traffic or when CAV adopts a larger headway than that of mixed traffic;
The number of CAV DL should be increased with the CAV demand
3 Chen et al. [6] AV (automated vehicle) and HV A theoretical framework of capacity Capacity MPRs;
Segregation policy
The strict segregation of AVs and HVs will lead to the lower capacity;
AVs should be distributed to the most efficient lanes
4 Ramezani et al. [8] AV and HV A theoretical model for headway, capacity and delay Capacity;
Mixed headway settings;
Multiple lane configurations
The achievement of minimum delay depends on the MPR
5 Ivanchev et al. [9] AV and HV An analytical evaluation based on simulation Throughput;
BPR-based travel time;
Fuel consumption
With or without a DL;
Headways of AV
Travel times of AVs are significantly reduced with a low MPR;
HVs are delayed due to the reduced capacity for them
6 Talebpour et al. [10] AV and HV Simulation Throughput;
Travel time reliability
Three DL access strategies
The optional use of DL can relieve the congestion;
The potential benefit of DL to throughput can be seen when MPR is over 50% for the 2-lane highway and 30% for the 4-lane highway
7 Laan and Sadabadi [11] AV and HV CORridor MACro simulation Flow;
Reaction times of AV
The performance of implementing a DL increases with MPRs adding up to 30%, 40%, or 50%, and then, it will deteriorate
8 Ye and Yamamoto [12] CAV and HV Simulation based on cellular automation Flow;
Flow-density diagram
Demand levels;
Number of DLs;
Speed limit
When MPR is low, a CAV DL will deteriorate the traffic throughput;
The benefit of DLs could be obtained within a medium density range;
A higher speed limit for CAVs on a DL is beneficial
9 Abdel-Aty et al. [13] CV (connected vehicle) and HV Vissim simulation SSAM;
Average speed;
Average delay
Multiple lane configurations
Managed CV platooning lane could significantly improve the traffic speed
10 Nickkar and Lee [14] AV and HV AIMSUM and SIDRA simulation Travel time;
With or without AV DLs
The improvement brought by the DLs to the performance of a roundabout can be seen at a high MPR, but it is not significant
11 Wang et al. [15] CAV and HV Simulation Capacity MPRs
CAV platoon coefficient
The impact on the on-ramp junctions
Network-based studies
13 Chen et al. [16] AV and HV A multi-class network equilibrium model Minimize the social costs MPRs (Market Penetration Rates);
The deployment plan of AV DLs
A progressive deployment of AV lanes;
Wide deployment when MPR reaches a high level (e.g., 20%)
14 Qom et al. [17] CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) vehicle and HV Static and dynamic traffic assignment model Throughput MPRs;
A tolling policy;
Traffic demand
Results from STA (Static Traffic Assignment) and DTA (Dynamic Traffic Assignment) are consistent;
The toll incentives are not beneficial until the MPR reaches a high level
15 Liu and Song [18] CAV and HV User equilibrium model Capacity;
Travel time
With or without CAV DLs;
CAV DL toll rates
The implementation of AV lanes or AV toll lanes can significantly improve the traffic performance
16 Wang et al. [15] CAV and HV A multiclass traffic assignment model with elastic demand Link flow CAV DL toll rates;
Traffic demands
The optimal toll rates for the HVs using CAV DL