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Table 4 Environmental impacts of different mobility solutions compared to private car or tourist rental car

From: In search of sustainable and inclusive mobility solutions for rural areas

  Advantages Disadvantages
Conventional public transport and designated tourist buses + decrease in GHG emissions compared to private transport, assuming sufficient occupancy rate − the potential positive effect might not be realised, if low occupancy
Semi-flexible and flexible door-to-door DRT + decrease in emissions dependent on occupancy rate and vehicle/fuel used
+ lower vehicle ownership rate
− the more flexibility, the smaller effect on emissions
Car-sharing and ride-sharing + small decrease in emissions (dependent on occupancy rate and vehicle/fuel used)
+ lower vehicle ownership rate
− due to rebound effect, the potential might not be realised
  1. Composed based on Mullay and Nelson [78], Firnkorn and Müller [85], Ryley et al. [65], Reichert et al. [81], Ferrero et al. [25], Amatuni et al. [79], Coutinho et al. [83], Jochem et al. [26] and TNMT [82]