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Table 4 Environmental impacts of different mobility solutions compared to private car or tourist rental car

From: In search of sustainable and inclusive mobility solutions for rural areas




Conventional public transport and designated tourist buses

+ decrease in GHG emissions compared to private transport, assuming sufficient occupancy rate

− the potential positive effect might not be realised, if low occupancy

Semi-flexible and flexible door-to-door DRT

+ decrease in emissions dependent on occupancy rate and vehicle/fuel used

+ lower vehicle ownership rate

− the more flexibility, the smaller effect on emissions

Car-sharing and ride-sharing

+ small decrease in emissions (dependent on occupancy rate and vehicle/fuel used)

+ lower vehicle ownership rate

− due to rebound effect, the potential might not be realised

  1. Composed based on Mullay and Nelson [78], Firnkorn and Müller [85], Ryley et al. [65], Reichert et al. [81], Ferrero et al. [25], Amatuni et al. [79], Coutinho et al. [83], Jochem et al. [26] and TNMT [82]