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Table 9 Unit external costs per category (euro per 1000 tkm)

From: Adapted cost-benefit analysis methodology for innovative railway services

Euro per 1000 tkm Road (service area 1) Road (Service Area 2) Road (Service Area 3) SPECTRUM rail (Service area 1) SPECTRUM rail (Service area 2) SPECTRUM rail (Service area 3) Regular Rail
Accidents 17,00 17,00 17,00 0,15 0,03 0,09 0,20
Air pollution 9,21 2,93 8,77 0,45 0,11 2,52 1,70
Climate change (average) 4,89 6,26 9,16 0,21 0,19 4,85 2,30
Noise 2,50 2,50 2,50 0,35 0,22 0,28 1,00
Up Down stream Processes 3,70 3,70 3,70 4,75 4,75 4,75 4,75
Nature and landscape 0,70 0,70 0,70 - - - -
Biodiversity losses 0,50 0,50 0,50 - - - -
Soil and water pollution 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,40 0,40 0,40 0,40
Urban effects 0,90 0,90 0,90 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10
Congestion 28,50 28,50 28,50 - - - -
Total externalities 68,89 47,19 72,73 6,40 5,81 12,99 10,45
  1. Sources: For accidents, air pollution, climate change and noise: authors’ elaborations. for other categories: [11]).