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Table 3 Selection of the models based on Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) for the two components of random factor effects and fixed factor effects and the linear regression models and the LME models

From: Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures – a driving simulator study

Fixed factor group I II
Random factors without WS WS without WS WS
Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC)
Response variable
Velocity 800–1000 m after measure 2171 1923 2173 1900
 MLa   1933   1930
Velocity 1800–2000 m after measure 2156 1926 2160 1909
 ML (n.s.)   1936   1939
  1. Fixed factor groups: (I) response variable (speed)  automatic speed camera + wildlife warning sign + radio warning + forest + fence; (II) response variable (speed)  automatic speed camera + wildlife warning sign + radio warning + forest + fence + interactions (between all factors)
  2. a = The LME model was significantly different at P < 0.05. n.s. = not significant. ML = LME model based on maximum likelihood estimates. Bold typed AICs shows the final model reported in Table 4