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Table 4 Results of linear mixed-effects (LME) model explaining response variables in the driving simulator experiment by testing the effects of different animal-vehicle collision countermeasures (radio warning, wildlife warning sign, automatic speed camera) and the presence and absence of wildlife fence and dense forest versus open landscape

From: Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures – a driving simulator study

Variable Coefficient SE DF t value P
Velocity 800–1000 m after measure
 Intercept 90.6241 1.638464 263 55.31041 < 0.0001
 Radio warning −5.69822 2.251078 263 −2.53133 0.0119
 Fence 2.78884 1.059812 263 2.63144 0.009
 Forest −2.22164 1.034645 263 −2.14725 0.0327
 Radio warning and fence −7.57272 2.445421 263 −3.0967 0.0022
Velocity 1800–2000 m after measure
 (Intercept) 90.39819 1.588899 263 56.8936 < 0.0001
 Radio warning −9.13026 2.296188 263 −3.97627 0.0001
 Forest −3.52007 1.055447 263 −3.33515 0.001
 Wildlife warning sign and forest 5.57434 2.455735 263 2.26993 0.024
  1. Only significant variables are shown. The model was run separately for each distance (i.e. 800–1000 m and 1800–2000 m after the measure was implemented, respectively). Final LME models are shown in Table 3. Significant explanatory variables are shown in bold type (P < 0.05). Random effects at 800–1000 m: standard deviation intercept 7.2, residual 5.1, and at 1800–2000 m: standard deviation intercept 6.9, residual 5.2