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Table 1 Design of single-modality take-over alert. Excerpt from Yun et al. [30]

From: Multimodal warning design for take-over request in conditionally automated driving

ModalityDesign factorsFeatures
SizeDiameter: 19 mm
Flash Frequency3–4 Hz
LocationHead-up display or dashboard center
AuditoryFrequencyMixed frequency of 880 Hz and 1760 Hz
Tone length50 ms
Tone interval30 ms
VolumeLouder by 15–30 dB than average noise inside car (absolute value < 90 dB)
HapticLocationDriver’s seat bottom, back
Frequency200-250 Hz
Length200 ms
Interval50 ms
TypePulse type