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Table 2 Regression models for the decreased amount in monthly trips for different activities

From: The trade-off behaviours between virtual and physical activities during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic period

  Variable ranges Changes in commute trips Changes in grocery trips Changes in non-grocery trips Changes in family and friends visit trips Changes in eating out trips Changes in hobby related trips Changes in sport related trips
Variable ranges   [−40, + 40] [−40, + 40] [−40, + 40] [−40, + 40] [−40, + 40] [−40, + 40] [−40, + 40]
   B t B t B t B t B t B t B t
(Constant)   −7.682 −2.24* −3.208 −2.01* − 2.909 − 2.54* −6.979 − 3.14* −4.944 − 2.78* −9.186 −3.44* −6.394 − 2.05*
Being a female 0, 1 0.014 0.02 −1.239 − 2.90* − 0.151 − 0.51 − 0.571 − 1.02 − 0.464 − 1.06 − 0.175 − 0.25 1.326 1.61
Being a full-time worker 0, 1 −7.568 −5.27* 0.458 0.67 −0.328 − 0.68 − 0.087 − 0.10 − 2.982 −4.22* − 0.946 − 0.85 0.834 0.63
Being a student 0, 1 − 10.216 −6.23* 0.203 0.26 0.182 0.33 0.264 0.25 −2.506 −3.04* −1.981 − 1.56 2.832 1.87**
Have university education 0, 1 −1.259 −1.21 −0.563 − 1.13 0.476 1.35 −0.347 − 0.52 − 0.252 −0.48 0.200 0.25 0.337 0.35
Having children within household 0, 1 0.193 0.21 0.241 0.53 0.037 0.12 1.053 1.74** 1.167 2.50* 1.582 2.16* −0.112 −0.13
Having adults within household 0, 1 −0.053 −0.06 0.358 0.78 0.159 0.50 0.228 0.38 −0.050 − 0.11 0.715 0.96 2.224 2.50*
Having elderly within household 0, 1 1.697 1.43 −1.755 −3.08* −0.690 − 1.72** − 0.477 − 0.63 0.270 0.46 − 1.085 − 1.18 − 0.399 − 0.36
Do not travel for the given activity during pandemic 0, 1 −4.984 − 3.44* − 1.905 −2.48* − 0.477 − 1.00 1.644 1.82** − 0.085 − 0.11 −1.820 − 1.81** − 2.057 − 2.08*
Living in Sweden 0, 1 1.146 0.67 1.031 1.26 1.353 2.29* 2.176 1.96* 1.628 1.87** 3.543 2.62* 2.469 1.54
Living in Italy 0, 1 2.472 1.52 1.091 1.36 1.896 3.41* −2.025 −1.91** 1.106 1.32 −0.569 − 0.44 1.747 1.14
Living in India 0, 1 0.136 0.06 1.766 1.68** 0.778 1.08 1.587 1.16 2.161 2.01* 4.102 2.46* −3.594 −1.80**
Used private car to carry out the given activity before pandemic 0, 1 −1.479 −1.04 1.569 2.43* 0.306 0.66 −0.515 − 0.58 1.002 1.53 0.497 0.56 0.152 0.14
Used public transport to carry out the given activity before pandemic 0, 1 −3.033 −2.32* −0.886 − 0.79 − 0.749 − 1.53 − 0.806 − 0.79 0.865 1.23 0.846 0.80 −3.885 −2.18*
Used private car to carry out the given activity during pandemic 0, 1 2.278 1.36 − 0.829 −1.32 0.085 0.16 2.424 2.44* 1.761 2.06* 0.814 0.70 −3.338 −2.41*
Used public transport to carry out the given activity during pandemic 0, 1 −1.431 −0.57 2.663 1.25 1.418 1.54 2.105 1.17 0.984 0.68 −1.745 −0.82 −3.818 − 0.86
R   .415a   .225a   .201a   .287a   .273a   .299a   .243a  
R square   0.172   0.051   0.040   0.082   0.075   0.090   0.059  
Adjusted R square   0.156   0.032   0.022   0.064   0.057   0.072   0.040  
Std. Error of the estimate   11.865   5.725   4.021   7.613   5.926   9.277   11.140  
Number of samples   781   781   781   781   781   781   781  
  1. The more negative t-coefficient, the larger relative decrease in number of trips, compared to their counterparts. One star (*) indicates 95% confidence level, two stars (**) indicates 90% confidence level. Variable ranges are indicated for each variable