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Table 4 Modelling results, Heckman model: willingness to pay (eq. 2: outcome) to use a specific transport mode (ordered probit equation)

From: Post-COVID-19 travel behaviour patterns: impact on the willingness to pay of users of public transport and shared mobility services in Spain

EQUAT. VARIABLES (Base reference)   PUBLIC TRANSPORT   CAR-SHARING   BIKE-SHARING / KICK SCOOTER-SHARING   TAXI / RIDE-HAILING   MOPED SCOOTER-SHARING
  Coeff. p-value   Coeff. p-value   Coeff. p-value   Coeff. p-value   Coeff. p-value
WILLINGNESS TO PAY SOCIODEMOGRAPHICS Gender (male)                
  Female                
Lost employment after COVID   −0.319 0.056   −0.573 0.000   −0.163 0.033       
MOBILITY HABITS Commuting (base case: intensive, public transport/sharing)
  Intensive, walking      0.303 0.015          
  Intensive, private bike         −0.987 0.068       
  Non-intensive, public transport   −0.508 0.036   −0.775 0.018      −0.608 0.022    
  Non-intensive, private bike         −1.260 0.008       
Leisure (base case: intensive, public transport/sharing)
  Intensive, private car/moto            0.213 0.058    
  Intensive, sharing   0.649 0.005             
  Non-intensive, private bike         0.421 0.004       
  Non-intensive, walking            0.314 0.054    
Shopping (base case: intensive, public transport/sharing)
  Intensive, public transport         −0.668 0.003       
  Intensive, private car/moto         −0.743 0.053   0.231 0.069    
  Intensive, walking   0.199 0.019      −0.206 0.048       
  Non-intensive, public transport                
  Non-intensive, private car/moto         −3.922 0.046       
  Non-intensive, walking   0.245 0.009             
MEASURES TO PREVENT AGAINST COVID Increasing supply to avoid crowding   0.192 0.018         0.247 0.027    
Increasing cleanliness and sanitising         −0.580 0.060   0.321 0.001    
Providing masks, gloves and sanitiser gel   0.125 0.099      0.202 0.035       
Certifying that only those non infected by COVID can use the service         0.373 0.000   0.269 0.110
Certifying that no user within the same day was infected by COVID      0.251 0.047       
Providing helmets with no contact with mouth, nose and eyes       0.191 0.076       
Increasing bike-related infrastructure         0.495 0.096       
Providing covers for handlebars and steering wheels        0.341 0.000       
  Constant   2.394 0.000   0.242 0.043   0.922 0.000   0.598 0.000   −0.109 0.925
No. Obs       833    851    840    833   767
Selected observation       749    461    568    581   286
Log-likelihhod       − 1685.6    − 1409.9    − 1517.6    − 1485.7   − 974.8
Wald Chi2       65.90    25.72    58.61    47.76   14.83