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Table 8 Dataset ranked by number of links and users, for Map-matching

From: Transport behavior-mining from smartphones: a review

References Links Users Ground truth (GT) Observations Area Device
Quddus et al. [89] 4605 n.p. 24-channel dual-frequency geodetic receiver 4 h trajectories, 1 s resolution London, sub-urban areas GPS logger, gyroscope, odometer
Li and Wu [67] 583 12,000 Hand match supported by Rule Based Algorithm Training-set: 8678 GPS points (traces + syntetic from GIS), Test-set: 1334 GPS points (traces only), 10 s resolution Beijing, urban areas GPS logger
Wu et al. [116] n.p. 442 + 13,650 No GT available. Hidden Markov Models map-matching results as benchmark with [78] 859,195 Traces, 3,709,666 Traces Porto, Shangai GPS logger
Lou et al. [71] n.p. 189 Validated-by-respondents (69 users only) Dataset 1: Syntetic generated from road network (error normally distributed 20 stdev, 0 mean). Dataset 2: 28 GPS Traces (Trips) Beijing Geolife, [130]
Chen and Bierlaire [26] n.p. 180 No GT available. Unimodal map-matching result as benchmark 10 s resolution Lausanne (CH) Urban and outskirt areas Nokia EPFL Lausanne [61]
Hunter et al. [52] n.p. Dataset 1: 10. Dataset 2: 600 Dataset 1: 1 s resolution GPS considered as high accuracy GT. Dataset 2: no GT Dataset 1: 700,000 GPS points, 1 s resolution. Dataset 2: 600,000 points, 1 min resolution S. Francisco Mobile Millennium system—GPS logger
Jagadeesh and Srikanthan [54] n.p. Dataset 1: 21,807 GPS points, 20 trips, 421 km. Dataset 2: 1000 trips, 13,139 km Dataset 1: Manual Check on Map-matched GPS points from higher accuracy source (smartphone), leveraging on knowledge of taxi route. Dataset 2: User validation Dataset 1: 21,807 GPS points, 20 trips (TAXI), 421 km, 1 s resolution. Dataset 2: 13,139 km, 1000 trips. Dataset 3: Syntetic Dataset adding noise to Dataset 1 Singapore Dataset 1: Custom Smartphone App (Android), Dataset 2: Commercial Smartphone App
Newson and Krumm [78] n.p. 1 Route planned before data collection and hand match 7531 GPS points, 80 km, 1 s resolution, degraded data simulation Seattle GPS logger
Bierlaire et al. [19] n.p. Dataset 1: 1 users. Dataset 2: 3 users. Dataset 1: Known true path. Dataset 2: no ground truth. Dataset 3: high accuracy GPS device Dataset 1: 10 points Dataset 2: 25 trips 1041 GPS points, 10 s resolution Lausanne (CH), Urban and outskirt Nokia EPFL Lausanne [61]
Li et al. [68] n.p. n.p. Tightly-coupled carrier phase GPS receivers integrated with a high-grade inertial navigation system 3363 epochs (sub-urban), 2399 epochs (urban), resolution: 1 epoch/s Nottingham rural sub-urban, Central London GPS logger, digital elevation model
Torre et al. [106] n.p. n.p. n.p. 128 GPS Traces, 185,000 GPS points, 360 km, 1088 min Minneapolis (Twin Cities) Cyclopath Android App
Wei et al. [115] n.p. n.p. n.p. 14,436 GPS points (SIGSPATIAL Cup 2012 DS), 19,080 GPS points, 1 s resolution Seattle Shanghai