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Table 2 Studies about headway distribution in mixed traffic

From: Impact of connected and autonomous vehicle dedicated lane on the freeway traffic efficiency

Index of study Automation level of CAV Data source Headway between HVs (s) Headway for an HV following a CAV (s) Headway for a CAV following an HV (s) Headway between CAVs (s)
1 Joel VanderWerf et al. [20] ACC Simulation Uniform 1.0–2.0 Uniform 0.5–1.4
2 Bose and Ioannou, [21] ACC/CACC Simulation Uniform 0.7–2.2 Uniform 0.5–1.5
3 Arem et al. [22] CACC Simulation Fixed 1.4 Fixed 1.4 Fixed 1.4 Fixed 0.5
4 Christopher Nowakowski et al. [23] CACC Field test Uniform 1.1–2.2 Uniform 0.6–1.1
5 Schakel et al. [24] ACC Field test Gaussian 1.2 ± 0.15 and 1.2 ± 0.3 Gaussian 1.2 ± 0.15 and 1.2 ± 0.3
6 Larsson [25] ACC Survey Uniform 1.0–2.6  
7 Altay et al. [26] ACC/CACC Field test Uniform 0.6–2.0 Uniform 0.6–2.0
8 Li Zhao and Sun [27] ACC/CACC Simulation Fixed 1.4 Fixed 0.5
9 Kumar et al. [28] None Field data Uniform 1.3–2.4   
10 Arnaout and Bowling [29] CACC Simulation Uniform 1.0–1.8 Uniform 1.0–1.8 Uniform 0.8–1.0 Fixed 0.5
11 Nikolos et al. [30] ACC/CACC Numerical
Simulations
Uniform 0.8–2.2
12 Hussain et al. [7] CAV Numerical analysis Fixed 1.8 1.2 or 1.8 1.2 or 1.8 0.3 and 0.45
13 Ivanchev et al. [9] AV Agent-based macroscopic simulation Fixed 1.8 Fixed 1.8 Uniform 0.5–1.0 Uniform 0.5–1.0
14 Darbha et al. [31] ACC Numerical
simulation
0.68–0.88 or 0.27–0.5 or 0.31–0.58
15 [1] CAV Numerical analysis Uniform 0.8–2.2 Uniform 0.8–2.2 Uniform 0.7–1.5 Uniform 0.6–1.1
16 [32] AV Simulation Fixed 1.8 Fixed 1.8 Fixed 1.2 Fixed 0.9
17 Lu et al. [33] AV Simulation Fixed 0.9 Fixed 0.9 Fixed 0.6 Fixed 0.6
18 Nishimura et al. [34] AV Simulation Normal average 1.69 Normal average 1.69 Uniform 0.1–3.0 Uniform 0.1–3.0
19 Zhao et al. [35] CAV Simulation Fixed 1.2 Fixed 1.2 Fixed 0.9 Fixed 0.9
20 Martin-Gasulla et al. [19] CAV Simulation Fixed 0.9 Fixed 0.9 Uniform 1.5–2.5 Fixed 0.6