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Table 5 Panel data—mixed multinomial logistic regression

From: The preference of onboard activities in a new age of automated driving

Alternative Attribute   Coefficient value (β) Std. Error z P > z Exp(B)
  Trip time Time  − 0.029 0.005  − 5.270 0.000* 0.97
  Trip cost Cost  − 0.002 0.0003  − 6.670 0.000* 1.00
  Onboard activity Reading 0.268 0.077 3.490 0.000* 1.31
   Writing  − 0.111 0.082  − 1.211 0.117 0.89
   Talking 0.270 0.077 3.500 0.000* 1.31
   Using social media and gaming 0.311 0.077 4.050 0.000* 1.36
   Eating/drinking 0.077 0.080 1.875 0.031** 1.08
   Doing nothing/others Base     
SAV The regular transport mode Car as a driver Base     
   Car as a passenger 0.509 0.155 3.280 0.001* 1.66
   Taxi 0.207 0.282 0.730 0.463 1.23
   PT 0.278 0.173 1.610 0.10*** 1.32
   Bicycle 0.091 0.010 0.930 0.352 1.10
   Walking 0.436 0.217 2.010 0.044** 1.55
   Others 0.009 0.396 1.20 0.235 1.01
  Age 15–24 Base     
   25–54  − 0.502 0.195  − 2.570 0.010** 0.61
   55–64  − 0.382 0.419  − 1.385 0.166 0.68
    + 65 0.466 0.630 0.740 0.460 1.59
  Job Full-time worker Base     
   Part-time worker  − 0.006 0.181  − 0.630 0.529 0.99
   Student  − 0.333 0.134  − 2.470 0.013** 0.72
   Homemaker  − 0.356 0.226  − 1.580 0.115 0.70
   Unemployed  − 0.128 0.219  − 0.850 0.395 0.88
   Self-employed 0.021 0.425 0.650 0.514 1.02
   Retired  − 0.813 0.395  − 2.060 0.039** 0.44
   Others 0.725 0.649 1.420 0.156 2.06
  Car ownership Yes Base     
   No 0.258 0.201 1.280 0.200 1.29
PT The regular transport mode Car as a driver Base     
   Car as a passenger  − 0.036 0.149  − 0.620 0.532 0.96
   Taxi 0.319 0.256 1.240 0.213 1.38
   PT  − 0.324 0.168  − 1.930 0.053*** 0.72
   Bicycle  − 0.293 0.290  − 1.010 0.313 0.75
   Walking  − 0.152 0.215  − 0.971 0.331 0.86
   Others  − 1.393 0.522  − 2.670 0.008* 0.25
  Age 15–24 Base     
   25–54  − 0.281 0.210  − 1.340 0.181 0.76
   55–64  − 0.205 0.386  − 0.872 0.383 0.81
    + 65 2.241 0.874 2.570 0.010** 9.40
  Job Full-time worker Base     
   Part-time worker  − 0.404 0.195  − 2.070 0.039** 0.67
   Student  − 0.264 0.136  − 1.940 0.052*** 0.77
   Homemaker  − 0.727 0.245  − 2.970 0.003* 0.48
   Unemployed  − 0.424 0.135  − 1.800 0.072*** 0.65
   Self-employed 0.723 0.262 2.000 0.046** 2.06
   Retired  − 2.492 0.359  − 4.460 0.000* 0.08
   Others  − 1.274 0.325  − 1.340 0.180 0.28
  Car ownership Yes Base     
   No 0.243 0.144 1.501 0.133 1.28
SAV   β0  − 0.145 0.202  − 0.720 0.471 0.87
PT   β0 0.217 0.199 1.090 0.277 1.24
IR-AV   Base      
The number of observations = 9450        
Chi2(2) = 330.29        
Log simulated-likelihood =  − 3310.88        
Prob > chi2 = 0.000        
AIC = 6705.771        
BIC = 6960.088        
  1. *p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.1